What exactly is machine learning? AI or artificial intelligence is a very interesting and vast field of science and engineering which focuses on the creation of artificially intelligent machines, humans working alongside them, and thinking similar to humans. For instance, deep learning, language understanding, designing, and even thinking. It can be used in all sorts of areas including entertainment, manufacturing, and business.
Some experts believe we may already be seeing artificial intelligence systems “training” on real people, using their responses and predictions as a basis for future decisions. Such a system could take an experience and use it as a basis for future predictions about behavior and even allow you to make predictions about what may happen next time around, based on your past experiences. If you are right then this is called reinforcement learning. But if you are wrong then this will be termed feature specification training and it will be a disaster for the human race.
Deep learning uses two types of networks: one is the traditional supervised learning using a supervised artificial neural network (SANN), and the second is the unsupervised deep learning, also known as greedy artificial neural network (GAIN). Both use deep learning by feeding the computer with inputs and it takes the decisions for itself. However, in deep learning, each individual neuron is given more weights than other neurons in the network, and the output it produces is the best overall result. In contrast, in the traditional neural network, each output is treated as independent and each input is conditioned on the prior output.
Experts believe that the first true artificial intelligence system was created in 1990 at Bell Labs in New York. The system was codenamed Arp and it had just one type of input, namely digitized voice sounds from the user’s voice and no other factors at all. This is the reason why experts call this artificial intelligence a “self-contained AI system”. Soon after the creation of this system, researchers found that it had the ability to memorize nearly all the information learned by the user and perform at a much higher level than any other system at the time. Today, almost all machines in every field, including supercomputers, are using deep learning to achieve high levels of intelligence.
A deep learning artificial intelligence can either be a convolutional neural network (CNN) or a recurrent neural network (RNN). In convolutional artificial intelligence, the output it produces depends upon the previous output is produced in the past. For example, if it was trained to recognize handwritten numbers, then the next time it’ll output the digits, it will use the previous output is made to predict how many times it has made the same mistake. In the case of recurrent artificial intelligence, however, the system generates new output even if it didn’t produce the previous output. In its words, it learns at the same pace as the user.
Another question that is being asked about this technology is how the system works. Experts believe that artificial intelligence system works by using statistical and probability data sets to make generalizations and predictions about future data sets. The system learns by trying to obtain more accurate and reliable information and then using past data to make further predictions. To achieve this, the system uses backpropagation, which is a mathematical procedure of getting the best out of a lower level of inputs by the simplest possible model. As the result, the system makes better predictions for the future.
Besides using deep learning algorithms, experts also believe that the system also uses graphical representations of data sets. This is the reason why you see sometimes complicated images or animations appear on the screen when the user makes predictions. These representational schemes somehow “maps” the user’s brain in order to explain the underlying structure of the networks better. In addition to these graphical representations, the system also applies some common-sense rules that tell it what actions to take and which ones are not applicable at all times. However, the system’s actual calculations are mostly done by the user itself. The system basically learns how to make predictions from the data and how to act accordingly to achieve the goals and the objectives of the business.
There are different types of machine learning algorithms used in the networks such as the support vector networks (which is the most popular), tensor networks, and neural networks. The latter is considered to be more effective and efficient compared to the former two because it allows the creator of the system to create more complex features that can be learned by the network. However, even if these networks are more complicated, they are still based on the same basic principles, namely the use of a deep and complex mathematical functions called feature specifications.